Clinical and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Metronomic Cyclophosphamide, Celecoxib, and Dexamethasone in Advanced Hormone-refract

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Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 21.

Clinical and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Metronomic Cyclophosphamide, Celecoxib, and Dexamethasone in Advanced Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer.

 

Authors' Affiliations: Division of Medical Oncology, Azienda USL 6 of Livorno, Division of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, Department of Internal Medicine, and Department of Oncology, Transplants and New Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa, Division of Medical Oncology, Azienda USL 5, Pisa, Pontedera, and Division of Medical Oncology, Azienda USL 2, Lucca, Italy.

 

PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the clinical activity and the pharmacodynamic profile of the novel schedule of a single i.v. standard dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX) immediately followed by an oral metronomic CTX regimen with celecoxib (CXB) and dexamethasone (DEX) in advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty-eight patients (68% docetaxel-resistant) received 500 mg/m(2) CTX i.v. bolus on day 1 and, from day 2, 50 mg/day CTX p.o. plus 200 mg/twice a day CXB p.o. and 1 mg/day DEX p.o. until disease progression. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 were detected by ELISA, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR of VEGF and thrombospondin-1 gene expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell and of VE-cadherin (VE-C) in blood samples was done.

RESULTS: A confirmed prostate-specific antigen decrease of >/=50% from baseline was observed in 9 of 28 patients (32%). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3 months (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.2 months) and 21 months (95% confidence interval, 12.4-29.4 months), respectively. Toxicity was mild and no grade 3 to 4 toxicities occurred. A significant relationship was found between plasma VEGF and prostate-specific antigen values (r = 0.4223; P < 0.001). VEGF levels significantly increased in nonresponders, whereas the responder patients maintained significantly lower levels of VE-C gene expression after the beginning of the treatment if compared with nonresponder ones.

CONCLUSION: Metronomic CTX plus CXB and DEX showed favorable toxicity and activity profile in patients. VE-C gene expression and VEGF levels represent potentially useful pharmacodynamic markers for the clinical response.