Clinical-translational strategies for the elevation of Nm23-H1 metastasis suppressor gene expression.

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Mol Cell Biochem. 2009 Apr 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Marshall JC, Lee JH, Steeg PS.

Women's Cancers Section, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA,

Interruption of the tumor metastatic process is a new, thought provoking molecular target for the treatment of cancer. The Nm23-H1 metastasis suppressor gene stands as a validated molecular target owing to its reduced expression in many aggressive human tumors, and the reduction in metastatic potential in vivo upon re-expression in multiple cell lines. Several compounds have been identified which elevate Nm23-H1 expression in vitro including indomethacin, gamma Linolenic Acid, trichostatin A, 5-aza-deoxycytidine, and high dose medroxyprogesterone acetate. Using a model of lung metastatic colonization by MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells, we demonstrated that high dose MPA reduced the formation of overt lung metastases by 37-46% and those metastases that formed were statistically smaller. A Phase II clinical trial of high dose MPA, alone or in combination with metronomic chemotherapy has recently opened.