Ivermectin COVID-19 studies. 147 studies, 96 peer reviewed, 77 with results comparing treatment and control groups. FLCCC provides treatment recommendations.

Average: 10 (1 vote)

 Ivermectin has been officially adopted for early treatment in all or part of 22 countries (39 including non-government medical organizations). Submit updates/corrections.
Jan 31
News Kowa News Release (News)
Japan's Kowa says ivermectin showed 'antiviral effect' against Omicron in research
Details   Kowa reports that ivermectin is effective for omicron. Original press release: [1].
Jan 28
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis v174
Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 77 studies
Details   • Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. All remain significant after exclusions. 50 studies from 46 independent teams in 21 differ..
Jan 24
Early de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.01.002 (Peer Reviewed)
death/hosp., ↓59.0%, p<0.0001
A Multimodal Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Hospitalization/death in Ambulatory Patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 28,048 COVID+ patients in Mexico, 7,898 receiving a treatment kit including low dose ivermectin, AZ, aspirin, and acetaminophen, shower lower mortality/hospitalization for those receiving the kit. Delivery of the treatment k..
Jan 23
In Vitro Liu et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.20.477147 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
SARS-CoV-2 Viral Genes Compromise Survival and Functions of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes via Reducing Cellular ATP Level
Details   In Vitro study showing that ivermectin and meclizine may be protective for heart muscle damage due to SARS-CoV-2.
Jan 20
In Silico Parvez et al., arXiv:2201.08176 [q-bio.OT] (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Insights from a computational analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant: Host-pathogen interaction, pathogenicity and possible therapeutics
Details   In Silico analysis of the omicron variant and 10 treatments reported effective for previous variants, predicting that all will be effective for omicron, with ivermectin showing the best results.
Jan 18
Late Zubair et al., Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, doi:10.4081/monaldi.2022.2062 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑8.9%, p=1.00
The effect of ivermectin on non-severe and severe COVID-19 disease and gender-based difference of its effectiveness
Details   Retrospective 188 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, 90 treated with ivermectin, showing no significant differences with treatment. The ivermectin group had more severe disease (66% vs 58%, with 6x higher risk for severe disease patients)..
Jan 13
Early Tyson et al., Preprint (Preprint)
death, ↓99.8%, p<0.0001
Low Rates of Hospitalization and Death in 4,376 COVID-19 Patients Given Early Ambulatory Medical and Supportive Care. A Case Series and Observational Study.
Details   Retrospective 4,376 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 in the USA treated with multiple medications including HCQ/ivermectin, favipiravir, vitamin C, D, quercetin, zinc, mAbs, budesonide, dexamethasone, prednisone, and colchicine (exact..
Dec 31
Early Abbas et al., Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.36468/pharmaceutical-sciences.spl.416 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑4.0%, p=1.00
The Effect of Ivermectin on Reducing Viral Symptoms in Patients with Mild COVID-19
Details   RCT 99 ivermectin and 103 control low risk patients in China, up to 7 days from symptom onset, showing statistically significant improvement in recovery with treatment, and non-statistically significant improvements in recovery time and d..
Dec 31
PrEPPEP Kerr et al., Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.26793.52327 (Preprint)
death, ↓45.0%, p=0.046
COVID-19 In-Hospital Mortality Rate is Reduced by Prophylactic Use of Ivermectin: Findings From a City-Wide, Prospective Observational Study Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM)
Details   PSM retrospective 378 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing lower mortality for patients that were on ivermectin prophylaxis before admission (not taking into account the lower risk of being hospitalized shown in the related larger stu..
Dec 31
Late Shimizu et al., Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2021.12.024 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓99.9%, p<0.001
Ivermectin administration is associated with lower gastrointestinal complications and greater ventilator-free days in ventilated patients with COVID-19: A propensity score analysis
Details   Retrospective 88 ventilated COVID-19 patients in Japan, 39 treated with ivermectin within 3 days of admission, showing significantly reduced incidence of GI complications and mortality, and increased ventilator-free days with treatment.
Dec 30
Review Semiz, S., Biomolecular Concepts, doi:10.1515/bmc-2021-0017 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
SIT1 transporter as a potential novel target in treatment of COVID-19
Details   Review of the potential connections between SLC6A20/SIT1, ACE2, Type 2 Diabetes, and COVID-19 severity. This provides another potential mechanism of action for ivermectin as a partial agonist of glycine-gated chloride channels, interferin..
Dec 29
Late Mustafa et al., Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy, doi:10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓63.7%, p=0.09
Pattern of medication utilization in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in three District Headquarters Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 444 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment in unadjusted results, not reaching statistical significance. Ivermectin was mostly used with patients in severe condition. Dose ranged..
Dec 28
Late Baguma et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1193578/v1 (Preprint)
death, ↓96.8%, p=0.31
Characteristics of the COVID-19 patients treated at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study
Details   Retrospective COVID+ hospitalized patients in Uganda, showing no statistically significant difference in mortality with ivermectin, however there was only 7 patients receiving ivermectin.
Dec 13
Late Jamir et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.20394 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑53.0%, p=0.13
Determinants of Outcome Among Critically Ill Police Personnel With COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study From Andhra Pradesh, India
Details   Retrospective 266 COVID-19 ICU patients in India, showing significantly lower mortality with PVP-I oral gargling and topical nasal use, and non-statistically significant higher mortality with ivermectin and lower mortality with remdesivir.
Dec 11
PrEPPEP Kerr et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.21272 (preprint 12/11/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓70.0%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching
Details   PSM retrospective 220,517 patients in Brazil,133,051 taking ivermectin as part of a citywide prophylaxis program, showing significantly lower hospitalization and mortality with treatment. CAAE:47124221.2.0000.5485. Additional results are..
Dec 1
Review Behl et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152072 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
CD147-spike protein interaction in COVID-19: Get the ball rolling with a novel receptor and therapeutic target
Details   Review of the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) transmembrane protein as an entry route for SARS-CoV-2, correlation with observed characteristics of COVID-19, and relevant potential therapeutics including azithromycin, melatonin, sta..
Nov 30
In Vitro Jitobaom et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1069947/v1 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Synergistic Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Repurposed Anti-Parasitic Drug Combinations
Details   In Vitro study showing a strong synergistic effect of combinations of ivermectin, niclosamide, and chloroquine, with >10x reduction in IC50 compared to individual drugs.
Nov 26
Late Ferreira et al., Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, doi:10.1590/1806-9282.20210661 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑5.2%, p=1.00
Outcomes associated with Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a single-center experience
Details   Retrospective 230 hospitalized patients in Brazil showing no significant difference with ivermectin treatment. Authors note that the treatments were more likely to be offered to sicker patients. Authors indicate that they do not know when..
Nov 23
Late Ozer et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27469 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓75.0%, p=0.09
Effectiveness and Safety of Ivermectin in COVID‐19 Patients: A Prospective Study at A Safety‐Net Hospital
Details   Small prospective PSM study in the USA, showing 75% lower mortality with ivermectin treatment, without reaching statistical significance, significantly shorter ventilation and ICU time, and longer hospitalization time. Authors leave the ..
Nov 17
PrEPPEP Samajdar et al., Journal of the Association of Physicians India, 69:11 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓79.8%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine for Chemo-Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Questionnaire Survey of Perception and Prescribing Practice of Physicians vis-a-vis Outcomes
Details   Physician survey in India with 164 ivermectin prophylaxis, 129 HCQ prophylaxis, and 81 control patients, showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases with treatment. Details of the treatment and control groups and the definition of cases ar..
Nov 9
Late Stone et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1048271/v1 (Preprint) Rapid increase of SpO2 on room air for 34 severe COVID-19 patients after ivermectin-based combination treatment: 55-62% normalization within 12-24 hours
Details   Retrospective severe COVID-19 patients in Zimbabwe treated with ivermectin, doxycycline, and zinc. For 34 with SpO2 tracking, there was rapid improvement in SpO2, with 55% recovery towards SpO2=97 within 12 hours. For all 92 severe cases,..
Nov 3
Late Malaysia Ministry of Health (News)
death, ↓69.1%, p=0.09
Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 3 November 2021 – Hasil Dapatan Kajian Keberkesanan Rawatan Ivermectin Untuk Pesakit COVID-19 Berisiko Tinggi (I-TECH Study)
Details   RCT 490 hospitalized patients in Malaysia, showing no significant differences. There was only 13 deaths - 3 for ivermectin and 10 for control. Minimal details are available currently. Group sizes are not provided (241/249 are the closest ..
Oct 30
Late Rezk et al., Zagazig University Medical Journal, doi:10.21608/zumj.2021.92746.2329 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓80.0%, p=0.50
miRNA-223-3p, miRNA- 2909 and Cytokines Expression in COVID-19 Patients Treated with Ivermectin
Details   Prospective 320 hospitalized moderate COVID-19+ patients in Egypt, 160 treated with ivermectin, showing lower mortality, improved recovery, and decreased cytokine expression with treatment. All patients were treated with HCQ. 7890/26-8-20..
Oct 28
PrEPPEP Verma et al., Indian Journal of Community Health, 33:3 (Peer Reviewed) Assessing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices towards Ivermectin Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Health Care Workers
Details   Survey of 306 healthcare workers involved in the medication of COVID-19 patients in India. 71% indicated that ivermectin had a protective effect for COVID-19.
Oct 20
Review Low et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166294 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Repositioning Ivermectin for Covid-19 treatment: Molecular mechanisms of action against SARS-CoV-2 replication
Details   Review of the antiviral characteristics of ivermectin and mechanisms of action. Authors note that ivermectin has proven effective for HIV-1, Adenovirus, flu, SARS-CoV, and more; due to genomic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, t..
Oct 19
Early Borody et al., TrialSite News (Preprint)
death, ↓92.3%, p=0.03
Combination Therapy For COVID-19 Based on Ivermectin in an Australian Population
Details   Retrospective 600 PCR+ outpatients in Australia treated with ivermectin, zinc, and doxycycline, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization with treatment. This trial uses a synthetic control group, and the preliminary repor..
Oct 15
In Vitro Segatori et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13102084 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Effect of Ivermectin and Atorvastatin on Nuclear Localization of Importin Alpha and Drug Target Expression Profiling in Host Cells from Nasopharyngeal Swabs of SARS-CoV-2- Positive Patients
Details   Gene expression analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 positive and negative patients, and in vitro study supporting the use of ivermectin and atorvastatin for COVID-19, and the efficacy of ivermectin at clinically relevant dosages...
Oct 14
In Vitro Jitobaom et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-941811/v1 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Favipiravir and Ivermectin Showed in Vitro Synergistic Antiviral Activity against SARS-CoV-2
Details   In Vitro study showing a strong synergistic effect of ivermectin and favipiravir. Combining multiple antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action helps to minimize drug resistance and toxicity.
Oct 14
News Goodkin, M. (News)
Are Major Ivermectin Studies Designed for Failure?
Details   Discussion of flaws in ivermectin trials creating a bias towards not finding an effect.
Oct 7
Review Fordham et al., OSF Preprints, doi:10.31219/osf.io/mp4f2 (Review) (Preprint)
The uses and abuses of systematic reviews
Details   Analysis of defects in the Popp et al. meta analysis.
Oct 5
In Silico Francés-Monerris et al., Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, doi:10.1039/D1CP02967C (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Microscopic interactions between ivermectin and key human and viral proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   In Silico molecular dynamics study showing that ACE2 and ACE2/RBD aggregates form persistent interactions with ivermectin.
Oct 2
N/A TrialSite News (News)
Committed to Medical Evidence, a Prominent Ivermectin Group is Eradicated from the Memories of Cyberspace
Details   Report on Twitter's censorship of the British Ivermectin Recommendation Development group.
Oct 1
Late Babalola et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-950352/v1 (Preprint) A Randomized Controlled Trial of Ivermectin Monotherapy Versus Hydroxychloroquine, Ivermectin, and Azithromycin Combination Therapy in Covid-19 Patients in Nigeria
Details   Small RCT with 61 patients in Nigeria, all patients treated with ivermectin, zinc, and vitamin C, showing no significant improvements in recovery with the addition of HCQ+AZ. PACTR202108891693522.
Sep 23
Early Mayer et al., Zenodo, doi:10.5281/zenodo.5525362 (Preprint)
death, ↓55.1%, p<0.0001
Safety and efficacy of a MEURI Program for the use of high dose ivermectin in COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 21,232 patients in Argentina, 3,266 assigned to ivermectin treatment, showing lower mortality with treatment. Greater benefits were seen for patients >40, and a dose dependent response was found.
Sep 7
News Scheim, D., TrialsSite News (News)
Merck’s deadly Vioxx playbook, redux: a debunked smear campaign against its competing drug—the FDA-approved, Nobel prize-honored ivermectin
Details   Discussion of Merck's ivermectin statements and past actions related to Vioxx raising significant concerns.
Sep 6
Early Buonfrate et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2021.106516 (preprint 9/6/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↑210.7%, p=0.47
High dose ivermectin for the early treatment of COVID-19 (COVER study): a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase II, dose-finding, proof of concept trial
Details   Early terminated 89 patient RCT with 29 high dose and 32 very high dose ivermectin patients, showing dose dependent viral load reduction, although not reaching statistical significance due to early termination. Since most patients have lo..
Sep 3
Early Okogbenin et al., Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.4103/npmj.npmj_532_21 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 patients treated at thisday dome isolation and treatment centre, federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria
Details   Retrospective 300 COVID-19 patients in Nigeria treated with ivermectin, zinc, vitamin C, and azithromycin, reporting no deaths. Authors conclude that early treatment is critical.
Sep 2
Meta Marik et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001443 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Ivermectin, A Reanalysis of the Data
Details   Updated meta analysis showing no significant change if Elgazzar et al. is excluded.
Sep 2
Meta Neil et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001450 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Bayesian Hypothesis Testing and Hierarchical Modeling of Ivermectin Effectiveness
Details   Updated Bayesian analysis of a subset of ivermectin trials showing that there is strong evidence to support a causal link between ivermectin and COVID-19 severity and mortality, and that the result is robust in sensitivity analysis, inclu..
Aug 19
In Silico González-Paz et al., Biophysical Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2021.106677 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Comparative study of the interaction of ivermectin with proteins of interest associated with SARS-CoV-2: A computational and biophysical approach
Details   In SIlico analysis of the components of ivermectin (avermectin-B1a and avermectin-B1b), suggesting different and complementary inhibitory activity of each component, with an affinity of avermectin-B1b for viral structures, and of avermect..
Aug 17
In Silico González-Paz et al., Journal of Molecular Liquids, doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2021.117284 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Structural Deformability Induced in Proteins of Potential Interest Associated with COVID-19 by binding of Homologues present in Ivermectin: Comparative Study Based in Elastic Networks Models
Details   In Silico elastic network model analysis of ivermectin components (avermectin-B1a and avermectin-B1b) providing a biophysical and computational perspective of proposed multi-target activity of ivermectin for COVID-19.
Aug 16
Review Kory, P., Substack (Review) (Preprint)
Summary of the Evidence for Ivermectin in COVID-19
Details   Summary of the evidence base for ivermectin and COVID-19 including in vitro and in silico studies, animal studies, pharmacologic studies, clinical observation and experience, observational controlled trials, randomized controlled trials, ..
Aug 12
Late Elavarasi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.08.10.21261855 (Preprint)
death, ↓19.6%, p=0.12
Clinical features, demography and predictors of outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a tertiary care hospital in India - a cohort study
Details   Retrospective 2017 hospitalized patients in India, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment in unadjusted results. No group details are provided and this result is subject to confounding by indication.
Aug 12
N/A Pedroso et al., The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101603 (Peer Reviewed) Self-prescribed Ivermectin use is associated with a lower rate of seroconversion in health care workers diagnosed with COVID, in a dose-dependent response
Details   Retrospective 45 healthcare workes in Brazil, showing lower creation of antibodies with multiple doses of ivermectin, which may be expected due to the antiviral activity as demonstrated in multiple studies. Authors appear unaware of these..
Aug 10
News La Pampa, Argentina (News)
death, ↓27.4%
La Pampa expondrá a la comunidad científica los resultados del Programa de Intervención Monitoreado de Ivermectina
Details   News report on the use of ivermectin in La Pampa, Argentina, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Aug 6
Review Kow et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001441 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Pitfalls in Reporting Sample Size Calculation Across Randomized Controlled Trials Involving Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19
Details   Review of sample size calculations in ivermectin RCTs, showing that existing RCTs are very underpowered.
Aug 6
Early Together Trial (News)
death, ↓18.0%, p=0.54
Early Treatment of COVID-19 with Repurposed Therapies: The TOGETHER Adaptive Platform Trial
Details   Preliminary report from the Together Trial showing mortality RR 0.82 [0.44-1.52] and combined extended ER observation or hospitalization RR 0.91 [0.69-1.19]. The same trial's results for a previous treatment were initially reported as RR ..
Aug 5
In Silico Rana et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-755838/v1 (Preprint)
In Silico
A Computational Study of Ivermectin and Doxycycline Combination Drug Against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Details   In silico study showing strong binding affinity of ivermectin and doxycycline for SARS-CoV-2 main protease 3CLpro, and increased binding affinity for the combination of both.
Aug 3
Review Santin et al., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2021.100924 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Ivermectin: a multifaceted drug of Nobel prize-honored distinction with indicated efficacy against a new global scourge, COVID-19
Details   Review concluding that the evidence supports worldwide use of ivermectin for COVID-19, complementary to immunization. Authors note that it is likely non-epitope specific, possibly retaining efficacy with new viral strains. They note that ..
Jul 31
Early, Late Sathi et al., Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.11 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical Effect of the Combination Therapy of Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin and Ivermectin in Patients with COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 85 COVID-19 patients including 8 ICU patients treated with ivermectin, HCQ, and AZ, showing all patients improving except for one patient that died 3 days after admission. Authors recommend early treatment. There was ..
Jul 28
Meta Popp et al., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub2 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19
Details   This meta analysis is designed to exclude most studies. Authors select a small subset of studies, with a majority of results based on only 1 or 2 studies. Authors split up studies which dilutes the effects and results in a lack of statist..
Jul 25
Early Ontai et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.07.21.21260223 (Preprint) Early multidrug treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and decreased case fatality rates in Honduras
Details   Report on the nationwide implementation of multi-drug COVID-19 inpatient and outpatient treatment protocols in Honduras, showing a case fatality rate decrease from 9.33% to 2.97%. No decrease was seen in Mexico, a similar Latin American c..
Jul 24
News World Ivermectin Day (News)
World Ivermectin Day
Details   Joint event by 22 worldwide organizations.
Jul 23
Safety Mansour et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108004 (Peer Reviewed)
safety analysis
Safety of inhaled ivermectin as a repurposed direct drug for treatment of COVID-19: A preclinical tolerance study
Details   Safety analysis of an inhaled lyophilized ivermectin formulation, showing 127-fold increase in drug solubility, and identifying safe dosage levels in rats.
Jul 16
News FLCCC Alliance and British Ivermectin Recommendation Development Group (News)
Joint Statement of the FLCCC Alliance and British Ivermectin Recommendation Development Group on Retraction of Early Research on Ivermectin
Details   News release noting that ivermectin remains effective after excluding Elgazzar et al. Given the large magnitude effects and 61 studies, excluding one study with ~3% of patients does not significantly change the evidence base.
Jul 12
Meta Neil et al., ResearchGate, doi:0.13140/RG.2.2.31800.88323 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Bayesian Meta Analysis of Ivermectin Effectiveness in Treating Covid-19 Disease
Details   Bayesian analysis of a subset of ivermectin trial data concluding that there is overwhelming evidence to support a causal link between ivermectin, COVID-19 severity, and mortality.
Jul 8
In Silico Muthusamy et al., Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Virtual Screening Reveals Potential Anti-Parasitic Drugs Inhibiting the Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein
Details   In Silico study identifying 32 anti-parisitic compounds effectively inhibiting the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with ivermectin being one of the top compounds.
Jul 8
News Together Trial (News)
Together Trial removes mortality and adverse event outcomes, and sublingual administration mid-trial
Details   Together Trial removes mortality and adverse event outcomes, and sublingual administration mid-trial.
Jul 7
Late Hazan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.07.06.21259924 (Preprint)
death, ↓86.2%, p=0.04
Effectiveness of Ivermectin-Based Multidrug Therapy in Severe Hypoxic Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients
Details   Small study of 24 consecutive patients in serious condition (9 days post symptoms, mean SpO2 87.4) using combined treatment with ivermectin, doxycycline, zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin C, showing no mortality or hospitalization with treatme..
Jul 3
News Open Letter, Statement of Concern and Request for Retraction, re: Roman et al. (News)
Open Letter, Statement of Concern and Request for Retraction
Details   Open letter signed by 40 physicians detailing errors and flaws in the Roman et al. meta analysis, and requesting retraction.
Jul 2
Review Adegboro et al., African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, doi:10.4314/ajcem.v22i3.2 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin
Details   Review of the antiviral effects of ivermectin.
Jul 2
Early Vallejos et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06348-5 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑33.5%, p=0.70
Ivermectin to prevent hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 (IVERCOR-COVID19) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Details   RCT with 501 relatively low-risk outpatients in Argentina showing hospitalization OR 0.65 [0.32-1.31]. With only 7% hospitalization, this trial is underpowered. The trial primarily includes low-risk patients that recover quickly without t..
Jun 30
Review Turkia, M., ResearchGate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.16973.36326 (Review) (Preprint)
A Continuation of a Timeline of Ivermectin-Related Events in the COVID-19 Pandemic [June 30, 2021]
Details   An extension of the ivermectin timeline covering April - June 2021, including WHO's role and funding, Gavi, COVAX, Trusted News Initiative, International Fact-Checking Network, the role of private philantrophy, Frontiers, comparison to th..
Jun 28
N/A Roman et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciab591 (preprint 5/25/21) (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Details   This is a severely flawed meta analysis. An open letter signed by 40 physicians detailing errors and flaws, and requesting retraction, can be found at [ trialsitenews.com ] . See also [ bird-group.org ] . Authors cherry-pick to include on..
Jun 25
Review Jagiasi et al., The International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14574 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Variation in therapeutic strategies for the management of severe COVID-19 in India- A nationwide cross-sectional survey
Details   Survey of medication use for severe COVID-19 in India, showing 33% adoption of ivermectin as of January 2021.
Jun 22
News Misiones Ministry of Public Health (News)
Results from ivermectin use from the Misiones Ministry of Public Health
Details   News report on ivermectin use in Misiones, Argentina, showing significantly lower hospitalization and mortality, and a dose-dependent effect with improved results for those taking 0.6mg/kg.
Jun 18
Review Lind et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-021-06948-6 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Increase in Outpatient Ivermectin Dispensing in the US During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Details   CDC analysis of ivermectin prescriptions in the US suggesting that, while national health authority recognition is delayed in that country, many physicians are aware of the efficacy demonstrated in clinical trials.
Jun 18
Early Krolewiecki et al., EClinicalMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100959 (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↑151.9%, p=1.00
Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with COVID-19: A proof-of-concept randomized trial
Details   Proof of concept RCT with 30 ivermectin patients and 15 control patients, showing a concentration dependent antiviral activity, but no significant difference in clinical outcomes. There was no significant difference in viral load reductio..
Jun 17
Meta Bryant et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001402 (preprint 3/11/21) (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
death, ↓62.0%, p=0.005
Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines
Details   Systematic review, meta analysis, and trial sequential analysis of 24 RCTs finding mortality RR 0.38 [0.19-0.73].
Jun 15
Review Zaidi et al., The Journal of Antibiotics, doi:10.1038/s41429-021-00430-5 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
The mechanisms of action of Ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2: An evidence-based clinical review article
Details   Extensive review of 20 mechanisms of action of ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2. This paper was censored by the editor for reasons unrelated to the review of mechanisms of action. The editor required the authors to change the paper to include f..
Jun 15
Early Aref et al., International Journal of Nanomedicine, doi:10.2147/IJN.S313093 (Peer Reviewed)
recov. time, ↓63.2%, p=0.0001
Clinical, Biochemical and Molecular Evaluations of Ivermectin Mucoadhesive Nanosuspension Nasal Spray in Reducing Upper Respiratory Symptoms of Mild COVID-19
Details   RCT 114 patients in Egypt, 57 treated with ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension intranasal spray, showing faster recovery and viral clearance with treatment. NCT04716569.
Jun 6
N/A Hariyanto et al., Reviews In Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/rmv.2265 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
death, ↓69.0%, p=0.001
Ivermectin and outcomes from Covid-19 pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trial studies
Details   Systematic review and meta analysis of 19 RCTs showing mortality RR 0.31 [0.15-0.62].
Jun 3
Review Wang et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147 (Review) (Preprint)
Minimum manufacturing costs, national prices and estimated global availability of new repurposed therapies for COVID-19
Details   Analysis of the manufacturing cost of several COVID-19 medications, showing a cost of $0.55 per course of ivermectin, including excipients, formulation, tax, and profit.
Jun 2
Late Abd-Elsalam et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27122 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓25.0%, p=0.70
Clinical Study Evaluating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Study
Details   RCT 164 hospitalized patients in Egypt showing lower mortality and shorter hospitalization, but without statistical significance. There were no serious adverse effects. Authors suggest the low dosage may have resulted in lower efficacy th..
May 31
PrEPPEP Mondal et al., Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 119:5 (Peer Reviewed)
symp. case, ↓87.9%, p=0.006
Prevalence of COVID-19 Infection and Identification of Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Healthcare Workers: A Serosurvey Involving Multiple Hospitals in West Bengal
Details   Retrospective 1,470 healthcare workers in India, showing significantly lower risk of symptomatic COVID-19 with ivermectin prophylaxis.
May 18
In Vitro Mountain Valley MD (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Mountain Valley MD Receives Successful Results From BSL-4 COVID-19 Clearance Trial on Three Variants Tested With Ivectosol™
Details   In Vitro and mouse study with human ACE2 cells, using solubilized ivermectin with Ivectosol™, showing antiviral effect with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 variants of SARS-CoV-2. The ability to inject ivermectin potentially reduces the onset ..
May 12
News FLCCC Public Statement (News)
FLCCC Alliance Statement on the Irregular Actions of Public Health Agencies and the Widespread Disinformation Campaign Against Ivermectin
Details   Analysis of the ivermectin recommendations from WHO and others, and a call to action for all citizens, scientists, and media to counter false information. Whistleblowers can submit anonymous reports and images at the bottom of this page.
May 10
Early Faisal et al., The Professional Medical Journal, doi:10.29309/TPMJ/2021.28.05.5867 (Peer Reviewed)
no recov., ↓68.4%, p=0.005
Potential use of azithromycin alone and in combination with ivermectin in fighting against the symptoms of COVID-19
Details   RCT 100 outpatients in Pakistan, 50 treated with ivermectin, showing faster recovery with ivermectin. All patients received AZ, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, and paracetemol. Details of randomization were not provided. No mortality or hospi..
May 5
In Vitro Zatloukal et al. (News) (In Vitro)
News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal
Details   News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal, showing that "ivermectin was able to reduce virus replication by a factor of 1,000 even at low concentrations".
May 5
In Silico Qureshi et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1906750 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Mechanistic insights into the inhibitory activity of FDA approved ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2: old drug with new implications
Details   In Silico study showing inhibition of importin-α1 by ivermectin, which disrupts SARS-CoV-2 replication.
May 4
Meta Karale et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.30.21256415 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
A Meta-analysis of Mortality, Need for ICU admission, Use of Mechanical Ventilation and Adverse Effects with Ivermectin Use in COVID-19 Patients
Details   Systematic review and meta analysis with 30 studies included in quantitative analysis, showing mortality OR 0.39 [0.22-0.70]. Subgroup analysis of trials with severity data showed mortality OR 0.10 [0.03-0.33] for mild/moderate cases.
May 3
Early Merino et al., SocArXiv Papers, doi:10.31235/osf.io/r93g4 (Preprint)
hosp., ↓74.4%, p<0.001
Ivermectin and the odds of hospitalization due to COVID-19: evidence from a quasi-experimental analysis based on a public intervention in Mexico City
Details   Analysis of Mexico City's use of an ivermectin-based medical kit, showing significantly lower hospitalization with use. Authors use logistic-regression models with matched observations, including adjustments for age, sex, COVID severity, ..
Apr 30
Review Kory et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Details   Review of ivermectin trials and epidemiological data, concluding that ivermectin is effective for prophylaxis and treatment, and should be globally and systematically deployed in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
Apr 29
Late Ahsan et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.14761 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓50.0%, p=0.03
Clinical Variants, Characteristics, and Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients: A Case Series Analysis at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 165 hospitalized patients in Pakistan showing unadjusted lower mortality with combined ivermectin and doxycycline treatment. Details of the ivermectin group compared to other patients are not provided, however ivermectin was..
Apr 19
Review DiNicolantonio et al., Open Heart, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2021-001655 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Anti-inflammatory activity of ivermectin in late-stage COVID-19 may reflect activation of systemic glycine receptors
Details   Review suggesting that the effectiveness of ivermectin in the cytokine storm phase of COVID-19 may be, at least in part, an anti-inflammatory effect mediated by increased activation of glycine receptors on leukocytes and possibly vascular..
Apr 17
Early Loue et al., J. Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510202 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓70.0%, p=0.34
Ivermectin and COVID-19 in Care Home: Case Report
Details   Small quasi-randomized (patient choice) study with 25 PCR+ patients in a nursing home offered ivermectin, of which 10 chose to be treated. The mean age was 83.5 in the treatment group and 81.8 in the control group. There was lower mortali..
Apr 16
PrEPPEP Morgenstern et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.17455 (preprint 4/16/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓80.0%, p=0.50
Ivermectin as a SARS-CoV-2 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Method in Healthcare Workers: A Propensity Score-Matched Retrospective Cohort Study
Details   Propensity matched retrospective prophylaxis study of healthcare workers in the Dominican Republic showing significantly lower cases with treatment, and no hospitalization with treatment (versus 2 in the PSM matched control group). The ca..
Apr 15
In Silico Schöning et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-379291/v1 (Preprint)
In Silico
Highly-transmissible Variants of SARS-CoV-2 May Be More Susceptible to Drug Therapy Than Wild Type Strains
Details   In Silico study of ivermectin treatment predicting greater efficacy for variants with higher R0.
Apr 14
PrEPPEP Seet et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.035 (Peer Reviewed)
symp. case, ↓49.8%, p=0.0009
Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: an open-label randomized trial
Details   Prophylaxis RCT in Singapore with 3,037 low risk patients, showing lower serious cases, lower symptomatic cases, and lower confirmed cases of COVID-19 with all treatments (ivermectin, HCQ, PVP-I, and Zinc + vitamin C) compared to vitamin ..
Apr 10
In Silico Bello et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1911857 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Elucidation of the inhibitory activity of ivermectin with host nuclear importin α and several SARS-CoV-2 targets
Details   In Silico analysis finding that the in vitro activity of ivermectin may explained by acting as an inhibitor of importin-α, dimeric 3CLpro, and Nsp9.
Apr 3
Review Turkia, M., Research Gate (Review) (Preprint)
A timeline of ivermectin-related events in the COVID-19 pandemic
Details   An extensive timeline of ivermectin-related events from April 2020 to March 2021 including studies, news, health authority decisions, biased news coverage, and censorship. The author concludes that in a broader historical perspective, th..
Apr 1
Early Mourya et al., Int. J. Health and Clinical Research (Peer Reviewed)
viral+, ↓89.4%, p<0.0001
Comparative Analytical Study of Two Different Drug Regimens in Treatment of Covid 19 Positive Patients in Index Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Indore, India
Details   Retrospective 100 patients in India with 50 treated with ivermectin, and SOC for all patients including HCQ+AZ, showing much higher viral clearance with ivermectin. Baseline clinical status was worse in the control group. Time of testing ..
Mar 30
Review Wehbe et al., Front. Immunol., doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.663586 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Repurposing Ivermectin for COVID-19: Molecular Aspects and Therapeutic Possibilities
Details   Review of how ivermectin was identified for use in COVID-19, mechanisms of action, and selected clinical trials.
Mar 30
Early Chahla et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-495945/v1 (original preprint 3/30) (Preprint)
no disch., ↓86.9%, p=0.004
Cluster Randomised Trials - Ivermectin Repurposing For COVID-19 Treatment Of Outpatients With Mild Disease In Primary Health Care Centers
Details   Cluster RCT outpatients in Argentina showing significantly faster recovery with ivermectin. There were no deaths. Cluster RCT where outpatients in Tucumán were assigned to the ivermectin group and outpatients from San Miguel de Tucumán an..
Mar 29
Meta Kow et al., Pharmacological Reports, doi:10.1007/s43440-021-00245-z (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
The association between the use of ivermectin and mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis
Details   Small meta analysis of 6 RCTs showing mortality OR 0.21 [0.11-0.42]. Authors do not include two more recent RCTs with mortality results, 10 other studies with mortality results, and a total of 42 other studies including other outcomes. Au..
Mar 26
PrEPPEP Tanioka et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254377 (Preprint)
death, ↓88.2%, p=0.002
Why COVID-19 is not so spread in Africa: How does Ivermectin affect it?
Details   Retrospective study of the 31 onchocerciasis-endemic countries using the community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and the 22 non-endemic countries in Africa, showing significantly lower mortality per capita in the countries us..
Mar 25
In Silico Udofia et al., Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, doi:10.1007/s13721-021-00299-2 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
In silico studies of selected multi-drug targeting against 3CLpro and nsp12 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
Details   In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin had the highest binding energy against the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 and RdRps of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
Mar 25
In Silico Choudhury et al., Future Medicine, doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0342 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Exploring the binding efficacy of ivermectin against the key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis: an in silico approach
Details   In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin has high binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein, main protease, replicase, and human TMPRSS2 receptors.
Mar 25
Late Huvemek Press Release (Preprint)
no improv., ↓31.6%, p=0.28
Kovid-19 - Huvemek® Phase 2 clinical trial
Details   Phase 2 results from a multicenter RCT of hospitalized patients in Bulgaria showing faster viral clearance, greater clinical improvement, and improved biomarkers with treatment. Ivermectin was taken on an empty stomach, potentially reduci..
Mar 24
Review Yagisawa et al., The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics, 74-1, Mar 2021 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Global trends in clinical studies of ivermectin in COVID-19
Details   Review of ivermectin for COVID-19. Authors note that Kitasato University's project was expanded in response to the results of Caly et al. which had left questions regarding in vivo therapeutic levels, and the results of those studies were..
Mar 21
Early Emmerich et al., Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073371 (Preprint) Comparisons between the Neighboring States of Amazonas and Pará in Brazil in the Second Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak and a Possible Role of Early Ambulatory Treatment
Details   Comparison between the two largest neighboring states in Brazil, Amazonas and Pará, showing more than 5 times lower mortality in Pará during the second wave when the Pará government supported early treatment and Amazonas did not, compared..
Mar 18
Late Del Franco et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1008 (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin in Long-Covid Patients: A Retrospective Study
Details   Retrospective 856 patients previously admitted to hospital for COVID-19 in Argentina, finding that ivermectin improved recovery from "long covid" symptoms.
Mar 17
In Vitro Kumar et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.17.444467 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Moxidectin and ivermectin inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells but not in human primary airway epithelium cells
Details   In Vitro study showing moxidectin and ivermectin exhibited antiviral activity in Vero E6 cells. Authors indicate that no statistically significant effect was seen in Calu-3/PBEC cells, however Figure 3 shows a dose dependent reduction wit..
Mar 12
Early Roy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21252883 (Preprint)
recov. time, ↓5.6%, p=0.87
Outcome of Different Therapeutic Interventions in Mild COVID-19 Patients in a Single OPD Clinic of West Bengal: A Retrospective study
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 56 mild COVID-19 patients, all treated with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, comparing ivermectin + doxycycline (n=14), AZ (n=13), HCQ (n=14), and SOC (n=15), finding that all groups recover quickly, and ..
Mar 11
Meta Nardelli et al., Signa Vitae, doi:10.22514/sv.2021.043 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
death, ↓79.5%, p<0.0001
Crying wolf in time of Corona: the strange case of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine. Is the fear of failure withholding potential life-saving treatment from clinical use?
Details   Meta analysis of RCT mortality results showing RR 0.19, p < 0.00001.
Mar 11
Meta Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Ivermectin sales in Valle del Cauca, Colombia, patterns of AEs, and other background re López-Medina et al. 2021
Details   Analysis of several issues with López-Medina et al. including the atypical adverse effects in the control arm and population use of ivermectin.
Mar 11
Meta Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Protocol violations in López-Medina et al.: 38 switched ivermectin (IVM) and placebo doses, failure of blinding, widespread IVM sales OTC in Cali, and nearly identical AEs for the IVM and control groups
Details   Report on protocol violations in López-Medina et al.
Mar 10
In SIlico Kern et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.625678 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Modeling of SARS-CoV-2 Treatment Effects for Informed Drug Repurposing
Details   Modeling study analyzing timing and dosing regimens of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin, artemisinin, and nitazoxanide. The greatest benefits were seen when treatments were given immediately at the time of diagnosis. Au..
Mar 10
In Vitro Yesilbag et al., Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198384 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Ivermectin also inhibits the replication of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BPIV-3, BoHV-1, BCoV and BVDV) in vitro
Details   In Vitro study showing that ivermectin can inhibit infection of bovine respiratory disease viral agents BCoV, BPIV-3, BVDV, BRSV and BoHV-1 at the concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μM and in a dose-dependent manner.
Mar 9
Late Pott-Junior et al., Toxicology Reports, doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.003 (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓85.2%, p=0.25
Use of ivermectin in the treatment of Covid-19: a pilot trial
Details   Very small RCT with 4 control patients and 28 ivermectin patients split across 3 different dosage levels, showing lower (non-statistically significant) ICU admission with treatment. Authors suggest that ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2 is safe a..
Mar 8
Early Chamie-Quintero et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) Ivermectin for COVID-19 in Peru: 14-fold reduction in nationwide excess deaths, p=.002 for effect by state, then 13-fold increase after ivermectin use restricted
Details   Analysis of ivermectin use in Peru concluding that ivermectin most likely caused a 14 times reduction in excess deaths in Peru, prior to a 13 times increase after reversal of ivermectin use. Authors conclude that the results strongly sugg..
Mar 8
Late Guzman et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252084 (Preprint)
death, ↓19.0%, p=0.35
Factors associated with increased mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients in a Mexican public hospital: the other faces of health system oversaturation
Details   Retrospective 196 critically ill patients in Mexico. Patients overlap with the existing RCT by Beltran-Gonzalez (NCT04391127). This preprint shows a larger treated population and greater (non-statistically significant) improvement with iv..
Mar 8
Late Galan et al., Pathogens and Global Health, doi:10.1080/20477724.2021.1890887 (Peer Reviewed) Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   RCT 168 very late stage severe condition hospitalized patients comparing CQ, HCQ, and ivermectin not showing significant differences. Authors were unable to add a control arm due to ethical issues. Authors claim that "the mortality ..
Mar 5
Safety Descotes, J., ImmunoSafe Consultance (Preprint)
safety analysis
Medical Safety of Ivermectin
Details   Safety analysis of >350 articles showing that ivermectin has an excellent safety profile. The author notes that "no severe adverse event has been reported in dozens of completed or ongoing studies involving thousands of participants..
Mar 4
Early López-Medina et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2021.3071 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓66.8%, p=0.50
Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   An open letter, signed by >100 physicians, concluding this study is fatally flawed can be found at [ jamaletter.com ] . This is a phone survey based RCT with low risk patients, 200 ivermectin and 198 control, showing lower mortality, lowe..
Mar 1
In Silico Saha et al., Structural Chemistry, doi:10.1007/s11224-021-01776-0 (preprint 3/1) (Preprint)
In Silico
The Binding mechanism of ivermectin and levosalbutamol with spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
Details   In SIlico analysis predicting that ivermectin has a large binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Three different computer modeling techniques show that ivermectin can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entrance via hACE2.
Feb 23
Late Gonzalez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037 (Preprint)
death, ↓14.4%, p=1.00
Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial
Details   RCT late stage severe condition (93% SOFA ≥ 2, 96% APACHE ≥ 8) high comorbidity hospitalized patients in Mexico with 36 low dose ivermectin and 37 control patients not finding significant differences. NCT04391127. Another study reports re..
Feb 20
News BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021 (News)
BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021
Details   The British Ivermectin Recommendation Development (BIRD) panel, with dozens of multi-national scientists & doctors, issued sweeping recommendations for the immediate global use of ivermectin.
Feb 16
Early Elalfy et al., J. Med. Virol., doi:10.1002/jmv.26880 (Peer Reviewed)
viral+, ↓86.9%, p<0.0001
Effect of a combination of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement (MANS.NRIZ study) on the clearance of mild COVID-1
Details   Non-randomized controlled trial with 62 mild and early moderate patients with home treatment with ivermectin + nitazoxanide + ribavirin + zinc, showing significantly faster viral clearance.
Feb 15
PrEPPEP Behera et al., Cureus 13:8, doi:10.7759/cureus.16897 (preprint 2/15/21) (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓83.0%, p<0.001
Prophylactic Role of Ivermectin in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Among Healthcare Workers
Details   Prospective prophylaxis study with 3,532 healthcare workers, 2,199 receiving two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis, showing adjusted relative risk of confirmed COVID-19 with treatment 0.17 [0.12-0.23] p<0.001. 186 patients took only the first d..
Feb 12
Early Biber et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.31.21258081 (results 2/12/21) (Preprint)
hosp., ↓70.2%, p=0.34
Favorable outcome on viral load and culture viability using Ivermectin in early treatment of non-hospitalized patients with mild COVID-19, A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial
Details   Double blind RCT for mild-moderate COVID-19 outpatients in Israel showing significantly faster reduction in viral load with treatment, and lower hospitalization with treatment. The one treatment hospitalization was a few hours after treat..
Feb 10
Late Lima-Morales (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓77.7%, p<0.001
Effectiveness of a multidrug therapy consisting of ivermectin, azithromycin, montelukast and acetylsalicylic acid to prevent hospitalization and death among ambulatory COVID-19 cases in Tlaxcala, Mexico
Details   Prospective trial of 768 COVID-19 outpatients in Mexico, 481 treated with ivermectin, AZ, montelukast, and aspirin, and 287 control patients with various treatments, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization, and significa..
Feb 2
Early Mohan et al., Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2021.08.021 (preprint 2/2/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
no recov., ↓62.5%, p=0.27
Single-dose oral ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): a single-centre randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Details   RCT in India with low risk patients, comparing 24mg ivermectin, 12mg ivermectin, and placebo showing non-statistically significant improvements in recovery and PCR+ status (day 5 both arms, day 7 24mg only) with treatment, and showing gre..
Jan 29
Meta Cobos-Campos et al., Clin. Res. Trials, 2021, doi:10.15761/CRT.1000333 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Potential use of ivermectin for the treatment and profilaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Efficacy of ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2
Details   Review finding that there appears to be sufficient evidence to recommend ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19, especially in the early stages of the disease.
Jan 27
Meta Castaneda-Sabogal et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.26.21250420 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Outcomes of Ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Details   Student-written meta analysis of a very small subset of studies exhibiting very high bias and significant flaws. Some of the problems: - As of the publication date, there are 35 studies, authors include only 4. (They list 5, but two are ..
Jan 25
In Silico Eweas et al., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.592908 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Molecular Docking Reveals Ivermectin and Remdesivir as Potential Repurposed Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2
Details   Molecular docking analysis showing that ivermectin efficiently binds to the viral S protein as well as the human cell surface receptors ACE-2 and TMPRSS2; therefore, it might be involved in inhibiting the entry of the virus into the host ..
Jan 23
Animal Errecalde et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.xphs.2021.01.017 (Peer Reviewed)
animal study
Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assessments of a Novel Ivermectin Nasal Spray Formulation in a Pig Model
Details   Animal study of a novel spray formulation of ivermectin, showing an advantage of the spray formulation in terms of fast attainment of high and persistent ivermectin concentrations in nasopharyngeal tissue.
Jan 21
Early Chamie-Quintero et al., Preprint, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3765018 (Preprint) Sharp Reductions in COVID-19 Case Fatalities and Excess Deaths in Peru in Close Time Conjunction, State-By-State, with Ivermectin Treatments
Details   Analysis of ivermectin usage within states in Peru showing sharp reductions in COVID-19 deaths corresponding to the usage of ivermectin treatment.
Jan 20
In Vitro Mody et al., Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents
Details   Computational molecular modeling screening and in vitro analysis for inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme, showing that ivermectin blocked more than 85% of 3CLpro activity of SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral activity of ivermectin..
Jan 19
Late Shahbaznejad et al., Clinical Therapeutics, doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.04.007 (partial results available 1/19) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑197.1%, p=1.00
Effect of ivermectin on COVID-19: A multicenter double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial
Details   RCT in Iran showing shorter time to recovery and shorter hospitalization time with ivermectin. There were no adverse effects. There was one death in the treatment group, the patient was in critical condition at baseline and died within 24..
Jan 19
Meta Hill et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-148845/v1 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
death, ↓75.0%, p=0.0002
Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   Meta analysis of 18 ivermectin RCTs with 2,282 patients showing faster viral clearance (dose and duration dependent), improved clinical recovery, and lower hospitalization and mortality. In six RCTs of moderate or severe infection, there ..
Jan 16
Early Samaha et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13060989 (results 1/16) (Peer Reviewed) Effects of a Single Dose of Ivermectin on Viral and Clinical Outcomes in Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infected Subjects: A Pilot Clinical Trial in Lebanon
Details   This study was retracted.
Jan 16
Early Bukhari et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.02.21250840 (results 1/16) (Preprint)
viral+, ↓82.4%, p<0.0001
Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Disease
Details   RCT of relatively low risk hospitalized patients with 50 ivermectin and 50 control patients showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. 9 patients in the treatment arm were lost to followup compared with 5 in the control ..
Jan 13
Review Kory et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.643369 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Details   Meta analysis of ivermectin clinical studies and natural experiments where ivermectin has been widely used, showing efficacy of ivermectin in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. This paper was censored by the journal after acceptance [..
Jan 12
Late Okumuş et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06104-9 (preprint 1/12) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓33.3%, p=0.55
Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Adding Ivermectin to Treatment in Severe COVID-19 Patients
Details   Small RCT for severe COVID-19 comparing the addition of ivermectin to SOC (low dose HCQ+AZ+favipiravir), with 30 treatment and 30 control patients in Turkey, showing lower mortality and faster clinical recovery. Authors also investigate t..
Jan 11
PrEPPEP Chahla et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001433 (Peer Reviewed)
m/s case, ↓95.2%, p=0.002
A randomized trial - intensive treatment based in ivermectin and iota-carrageenan as pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare agents
Details   Prophylaxis RCT for ivermectin and iota-carrageenan in Argentina, 117 healthcare workers treated with ivermectin and iota-carrageenan, and 117 controls, showing significantly lower cases with treatment. There were no moderate/severe cases..
Jan 11
N/A Bousquet-Melou et al., Preprint, doi:10.22541/au.161047848.80388481/v1 (Preprint)
dosing study
Large Impact of obesity on the disposition of ivermectin, moxidectin and eprinomectin in a canine model: relevance for COVID-19 patients
Details   Animal dosing study with an obese dog model concluding that ivermectin maintenance doses should be based on lean body weight and not the total body weight in obese subjects, while the loading dose should be based on the total body weight.
Jan 10
Review Formiga et al., J. Control Release, doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.009 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Ivermectin: an award-winning drug with expected antiviral activity against COVID-19
Details   Review hypothesizing that micro- and nanotechnology-based formulations of ivermectin for the pulmonary delivery of ivermectin may be beneficial for use with COVID-19.
Jan 9
Early Ravikirti et al., Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.18433/jpps32105 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓88.7%, p=0.12
Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial
Details   RCT with 112 mild and moderate COVID-19 patients in India, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and ICU admission, although not statistically significant due to the small number of events. There was no mortality in the treatment arm (55 ..
Jan 8
Early Chamie, J. (News)
COVID-19 in Mexico
Details   Comparison of COVID-19 death rates in Mexico showing that the only state using ivermectin has a dramatically lower rate.
Jan 6
Early Babalola et al., QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab035 (preprint 1/6) (Peer Reviewed)
viral+, ↓63.9%, p=0.11
Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID19: A randomised controlled double-blind, dose-response study in Lagos
Details   Small RCT comparing ivermectin 6mg & 12mg q84hr with lopinavir/ritonavir, showing a statistically significant and dose dependent effect of ivermectin on reducing the time to PCR-. The study does not report mortality, hospitalization, pro..
Jan 6
PrEPPEP Hirsch et al., Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin as Prophylaxis Against COVID-19 Retrospective Cases Evaluation
Details   Report on ivermectin prophylaxis for healthcare workers in a hospital in Argentina, showing 0 cases in the 162 participants. Dosage was 0.2mg/kg weekly for eight weeks, followed by 4 months rest.
Jan 3
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Lawrie et al., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis)
death, ↓83.0%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin reduces the risk of death from COVID-19 – a rapid review and meta-analysis in support of the recommendation of the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance
Details   Meta analysis confirming the effectiveness of ivermectin for COVID-19, showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.18-0.35] and prophylaxis cases RR 0.12 [0.08-0.18].
Dec 31
Late Wijaya et al., Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, 47:7 (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for COVID-19 – case studies
Details   Case report on 3 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with significant clinical and radiological improvement after a single dose of ivermectin.
Dec 31
Animal Madrid et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05820 (Peer Reviewed)
animal study
Safety of oral administration of high doses of ivermectin by means of biocompatible polyelectrolytes formulation
Details   In vivo analysis of the safety of high dose ivermectin with a Corydoras fish animal model.
Dec 30
Review McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Details   Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Dec 30
Early Procter et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.260 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical outcomes after early ambulatory multidrug therapy for high-risk SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection
Details   Retrospective 922 outpatients, with 320 treated early due to age>50 or comorbidities, showing 2.2% hospitalization and 0.3% death, which authors note is considerably lower than reported in other studies in their region. At least two of z..
Dec 27
Meta Hill, A., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Meta-analysis of clinical trials of ivermectin to treat COVID-19 infection
Details   WHO-funded meta analysis showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.08-0.35] for RCTs and RR 0.28 [0.13-0.62] for RCTs and observational studies, and confirming a dose-response effect.
Dec 24
In Vitro Jeffreys et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.12.23.424232 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Remdesivir-Ivermectin combination displays synergistic interaction with improved in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2
Details   In Vitro study showing enhanced antiviral activity of ivermectin and remdesivir in combination.
Dec 20
PrEPPEP IVERCOR PREP, Preliminary Results (Preprint)
cases, ↓73.4%, p<0.0001
Ivermectina en agentes de salud e IVERCOR COVID19
Details   Report on ivermectin prophylaxis in a hospital in Argentina showing lower cases for healthcare workers taking ivermectin. Preliminary results from: [1]. Note that this prophylaxis trial is a different study to the early treatment Vallejos..
Dec 18
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Kory et al., FLCCC Alliance (Preprint) (meta analysis)
death, ↓69.0%, p<0.0001
Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Details   Meta analysis of ivermectin clinical studies and natural experiments where ivermectin has been widely used, showing efficacy of ivermectin in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.
Dec 15
PrEPPEP Alam et al., European Journal ofMedical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.6.599 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓90.6%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Healthcare Providers in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in Dhaka – An Observational Study
Details   91% reduction in COVID-19 cases with ivermectin prophylaxis. 118 healthcare workers in Bangladesh, 58 receiving ivermectin 12mg monthly, showing RR 0.094, p < 0.0001.
Dec 15
Early Ghauri et al., International Journal of Clinical Studies & Medical Case Reports, doi:10.46998/IJCMCR.2021.13.000320 (preprint 12/15/2020) (Peer Reviewed)
no recov., ↓92.2%, p=0.04
Ivermectin Use Associated with Reduced Duration of Covid-19 Febrile Illness in a Community Setting
Details   Retrospective 95 outpatients in Pakistan with strong clinical suspicion of COVID-19 (testing was not widely available), with 40 patients treated with ivermectin, showing significantly shorter duration of febrile illness with treatment. Mo..
Dec 11
Early Hussain et al., International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, doi:10.25259/IJMIO_30_2020 (Preprint) Outcome of ivermectin and doxycycline in cancer patients with COVID-19: A positive experience in Bangladesh
Details   Small case study of ivermectin + doxycycline with 8 cancer patients, with all patients becoming PCR- by day 6 when tested again.
Dec 7
Early Chaccour et al., EClinicalMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100720 (preprint 12/7) (Peer Reviewed)
symptoms, ↓96.0%, p<0.05
The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial
Details   Tiny RCT for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in low risk patients, with 12 400mcg/kg single dose ivermectin patients and 12 control patients, showing significantly faster viral load reduction and symptom improvement with ivermectin. Aver..
Dec 4
Meta Kalfas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.30.20236570 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
The therapeutic potential of ivermectin for COVID-19: a systematic review of mechanisms and evidence
Details   Review of ivermectin mechanisms and 8 trials, showing positive mortality benefit, reduced time to clinical recovery, reduced incidence of disease progression, and decreased duration of hospital admission in patients across all stages of c..
Dec 4
In Vitro Surnar et al., ACS Pharmacol. Transl. Sci., doi:10.1021/acsptsci.0c00179 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Clinically Approved Antiviral Drug in an Orally Administrable Nanoparticle for COVID-19
Details   In Vitro analysis of ivermectin with orally administrable nanoparticles showing efficacy for decreasing expression of the viral spike protein and ACE2. Inhibition of nuclear transport activities mediated through proteins such as importin ..
Dec 2
Early Ahmed et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191 (Peer Reviewed)
symptoms, ↓85.0%, p=0.09
A five day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness
Details   Small 72 patient RCT of ivermectin and ivermectin + doxycycline showing faster recovery with ivermectin. The ivermectin + doxycycline group uses only a single dose of ivermectin vs. 5 daily doses for the ivermectin group. PCR testing was ..
Dec 2
Early Chamie, J. (News)
The effect of using ivermectin to control COVID-19 in Chiapas
Details   Report showing that after starting to distribute ivermectin in drug kits in July, the Mexican state of Chiapas has seen a dramatic divergence from other states with much lower mortality [1, 2].
Dec 1
Early Alonso et al., (Preprint)
death, ↓91.8%, p=0.009
COVID-19: Uso de ivermectina
Details   Observational study in Argentina showing significantly lower mortality in the 60 days after adopting ivermectin compared to the 60 days before, relative risk RR 0.082, p=0.003.
Nov 28
PrEPPEP Bernigaud et al., Annals of Dermatology and Venereology, doi:10.1016/j.annder.2020.09.231 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓99.4%, p=0.08
Ivermectin benefit: from scabies to COVID-19, an example of serendipity
Details   69 residents of a French care home, median age 90, were treated with ivermectin for a scabies outbreak. 3,062 residents in 45 nearby comparable homes were used as controls. 7 of 69 treated patients had probable or certain COVID-19, with n..
Nov 28
PrEPPEP Hellwig et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106248 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓78.0%, p<0.02
A COVID-19 Prophylaxis? Lower incidence associated with prophylactic administration of Ivermectin
Details   Analysis of COVID-19 cases vs. widespread prophylactic use of ivermectin for parasitic infections showing significantly lower incidence of COVID-19 cases.
Nov 24
Late Niaee et al., Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, doi:10.4103/1995-7645.318304 (preprint 11/24/20) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓81.8%, p=0.001
Ivermectin as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients: A randomized multi-center clinical trial
Details   82% lower mortality with ivermectin. RCT with 180 hospitalized patients showing reduced mortality and hospital stay with ivermectin, with a wide margin of safety. All patients received SOC including low dose HCQ. Analysis suggests randomi..
Nov 22
Animal de Melo et al., EMBO Mol. Med., doi:10.15252/emmm.202114122 (preprint 11/22/20) (Peer Reviewed)
animal study
Attenuation of clinical and immunological outcomes during SARS-CoV-2 infection by ivermectin
Details   Animal study showing that standard doses of ivermectin prevented clinical deterioration, reduced olfactory deficit, and limited the inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters.
Nov 18
Late Budhiraja et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20232223 (Preprint)
death, ↓99.1%, p=0.04
Clinical Profile of First 1000 COVID-19 Cases Admitted at Tertiary Care Hospitals and the Correlates of their Mortality: An Indian Experience
Details   Retrospective 976 hospitalized patients with 34 treated with ivermectin showing ivermectin mortality relative risk RR 0.13, p = 0.04 in unadjusted results.
Nov 17
PrEPPEP Carvallo et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1007 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓99.9%, p<0.0001
Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Ivermectin + Iota-Carrageenan in the Prophylaxis against COVID-19 in Health Personnel
Details   Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and iota-carrageenan showing 0 of 788 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 237 of 407 control. The authors later reported that carrageenan is not necessary in this protocol [1].
Nov 14
Late Spoorthi et al., IAIM, 2020, 7:10, 177-182 (Peer Reviewed)
recov. time, ↓21.1%, p=0.03
Utility of Ivermectin and Doxycycline combination for the treatment of SARSCoV-2
Details   100 patient prospective trial of ivermectin + doxycycline showing reduced time to symptom resolution and shorter hospital stay with treatment.
Nov 13
Late Elgazzar et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-100956/v2 (Preprint) Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin for Treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 Pandemic
Details   This study was withdrawn.
Nov 11
Late Camprubí et al., PLoS ONE, 15:11, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0242184 (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓40.0%, p=0.67
Lack of efficacy of standard doses of ivermectin in severe COVID-19 patients
Details   Tiny 26 patient retrospective study of very late treatment with ivermectin 200 μg/kg, median 12 days after symptoms, not showing significant differences. Authors suggest the dose is too low and recommend evaluation of higher doses. All pa..
Nov 10
Review Turkia, M., ResearchGate (Review) (Preprint)
FLCCC Alliance MATH+ ascorbic acid and I-MASK+ ivermectin protocols for COVID-19 — a brief review
Details   Review suggesting that ivermectin should be used based on existing data suggesting significant benefits, and that waiting for additional data may result in significant harm.
Nov 4
Early Cadegiani et al., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2021.100915 (preprint 11/4/2020) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓78.3%, p=0.50
Early COVID-19 Therapy with azithromycin plus nitazoxanide, ivermectin or hydroxychloroquine in Outpatient Settings Significantly Improved COVID-19 outcomes compared to Known outcomes in untreated patients
Details   Comparison of HCQ, nitazoxanide, and ivermectin showing similar effectiveness for overall clinical outcomes in COVID-19 when used before seven days of symptoms, and overwhelmingly superior compared to the untreated COVID-19 population, ev..
Nov 3
Early, Late Morgenstern et al., J. Clinical Trials (preprint 11/3) (Peer Reviewed) The Use of Compassionate Ivermectin in the Management of SymptomaticOutpatients and Hospitalized Patients with Clinical Diagnosis of Covid-19 at theCentro Medico Bournigal and at the Centro Medico Punta Cana, GrupoRescue, Dominican Republic, from May 1 to August 10, 2020
Details   Retrospective 3,099 outpatients treated with ivermectin in an ER. Of 2,706 treated on an outpatient basis, 18 were subsequently hospitalized, 2 in the ICU, and there was one death (0.04%). The average treatment delay for patients treated..
Nov 3
PrEPPEP Behera et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163 (preprint 11/3) (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓53.8%, p=0.0007
Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study
Details   Retrospective matched case-control prophylaxis study for HCQ, ivermectin, and vitamin C with 372 healthcare workers, showing lower COVID-19 incidence for all treatments, with statistical significance reached for ivermectin. HCQ OR 0.56, ..
Nov 2
Animal Arévalo et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-86679-0 (preprint 11/2/20) (Peer Reviewed)
animal study
Ivermectin reduces in vivo coronavirus infection in a mouse experimental model
Details   Mouse study showing ivermectin reducing MHV viral load and disease. MHV is a type 2 family RNA coronavirus similar to SARS-CoV2.
Oct 31
PrEPPEP Chang et al., ResearchGate (Preprint) COVID-19: Effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis with ivermectin in exposed persons
Details   Pre-exposure prophylaxis study with 129 people split into high/low exposure groups, with each group split into different dosing regimens, showing higher effectivess with more frequent doses. High-exposure group: every 7 days dosing: 0 o..
Oct 31
Early Szente Fonseca et al., Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101906 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↑13.9%, p=0.53
Risk of Hospitalization for Covid-19 Outpatients Treated with Various Drug Regimens in Brazil: Comparative Analysis
Details   Retrospective 717 patients in Brazil showing OR 1.17 [0.72-1.90] for ivermectin. This paper focuses on HCQ, event counts for ivermectin are not provided. With significant correlation between the variables used, including overlap in the pr..
Oct 26
Late Hashim et al., Iraqi Journal of Medical Science, 19:1 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓91.7%, p=0.03
Controlled randomized clinical trial on using Ivermectin with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq
Details   RCT 70 ivermectin+doxycycline patients and 70 control patients showing reduced time to recovery and reduced mortality with treatment. Earlier treatment was more successful. For ethical reasons, critical patients were all in the treatment ..
Oct 22
PrEPPEP Guerrero et al., Colombia Médica, doi:10.25100/cm.v51i4.4613 (Peer Reviewed) COVID-19: The Ivermectin African Enigma
Details   Study of African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) countries, which used ivermectin, with non-APOC countries in Africa, showing 28% lower mortality for APOC countries, relative risk RR = 0.72 [0.67-0.78]. See also [1] and the au..
Oct 19
PrEPPEP Carvallo et al., NCT04425850 (Preprint)
cases, ↓96.3%, p<0.0001
Usefulness of Topic Ivermectin and Carrageenan to Prevent Contagion of Covid 19 (IVERCAR)
Details   Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and carrageenan showing 0 of 131 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 11 of 98 control. The effect is likely to be primarily due to ivermectin - the author has later reported that carragee..
Oct 13
Animal Chaccour et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74084-y (Peer Reviewed)
animal study
Nebulized ivermectin for COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases, a proof of concept, dose-ranging study in rats
Details   Study showing that nebulized ivermectin can reach pharmacodynamic concentrations in the lung tissue of rats. Authors note that additional experiments are required to assess the safety of this formulation in larger animals.
Oct 13
Late Rajter et al., Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.10.009 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓46.0%, p=0.045
Use of Ivermectin is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 (ICON study)
Details   Retrospective 280 hospitalized patients showing lower mortality with ivermectin (13.3% vs 24.5%), propensity matched odds ratio OR 0.47 [0.22-0.99], p=0.045.
Oct 9
Early Mahmud et al., Journal of International Medical Research, doi:10.5061/dryad.qjq2bvqf6 (preprint 10/9/20) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.25
Ivermectin in combination with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 symptoms: a randomized trial
Details   RCT for ivermectin+doxycycline showing improvements in mortality, recovery, progression, and virological cure. 183 treatment and 183 control patients with no deaths in the treatment arm vs. 3 in the control arm (the 3 control deaths are n..
Oct 8
In Silico Francés-Monerris et al., ChemRxiv, doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12782258.v1 (Preprint)
In Silico
Has Ivermectin Virus-Directed Effects against SARS-CoV-2? Rationalizing the Action of a Potential Multitarget Antiviral Agent
Details   In silico study showing that ivermectin is capable of interfering in different key steps of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
Oct 8
Late Soto-Becerra et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.06.20208066 (Preprint)
death, ↓17.1%, p=0.01
Real-World Effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ivermectin among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: Results of a target trial emulation using observational data from a nationwide Healthcare System in Peru
Details   Retrospective database study of 5683 patients, 692 received HCQ/CQ+AZ, 200 received HCQ/CQ, 203 received ivermectin, 1600 received AZ, 358 received ivermectin+AZ, and 2630 received standard of care. This study includes anyone with ICD-10..
Sep 30
Late Chachar et al., International Journal of Sciences, 9:31-35, doi:10.18483/ijSci.2378 (Peer Reviewed)
no recov., ↓10.0%, p=0.50
Effectiveness of Ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Patients
Details   Small RCT with 25 ivermectin and 25 control patients, not finding a significant difference in recovery at day 7.
Sep 24
Late Khan et al., Archivos de Bronconeumología, doi:10.1016/j.arbres.2020.08.007 (Letter)
death, ↓87.1%, p=0.02
Ivermectin treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 115 ivermectin patients and 133 control patients showing significantly lower death and faster viral clearance. Some potential issues and the authors' response can be found in [1, 2].
Sep 22
In Vitro Li et al., J. Cellular Physiology, doi:10.1002/jcp.30055 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Quantitative proteomics reveals a broad‐spectrum antiviral property of ivermectin, benefiting for COVID‐19 treatment
Details   In Vitro study showing Ivermectin is a safe wide-spectrum antiviral against SARS-CoV-2, human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), and HIV. Authors note that the combination of ivermectin and other drugs might result in more f..
Sep 15
Early Carvallo et al., Journal of Clinical Trials, 11:459 (preprint 9/15/20) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.4%, p=0.08
Safety and Efficacy of the Combined Use of Ivermectin, Dexamethasone, Enoxaparin and Aspirina against COVID-19 the I.D.E.A. Protocol
Details   Prospective trial of ivermectin, dexamethasone, enoxaparin, and aspirin, showing no hospitalization for mild cases, and lower mortality for moderate/severe patients.
Sep 15
Review Jans et al., Cells 2020, 9:9, 2100, doi:10.3390/cells9092100 (Review) (Letter)
Ivermectin as a Broad-Spectrum Host-Directed Antiviral: The Real Deal?
Details   Review of ivermectin as a host-directed broad-spectrum antiviral agent for a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Cell culture experiments show robust antiviral action towards HIV-1, dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile virus, V..
Sep 9
In SIlico Swargiary, A., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73308/v1 (Preprint)
In Silico
Ivermectin as a promising RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor and a therapeutic drug against SARS-CoV2: Evidence from in silico studies
Details   In Silico study showing high binding affinity of ivermectin with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, suggesting ivermectin as an inhibitor of RdRp.
Sep 6
Review DiNicolantonio et al., Open Heart, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2020-001350 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Ivermectin may be a clinically useful anti-inflammatory agent for late-stage COVID-19
Details   Review suggesting that ivermectin may be useful for late stage COVID-19. Authors note that ivermectin, in doses at or modestly above the standard clinical dose, may have important clinical potential for managing disorders associated with ..
Sep 3
Late Podder et al., IMC J. Med. Science, 14:2, July 2020 (Peer Reviewed)
recov. time, ↓16.1%, p=0.34
Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled study
Details   Small RCT with 32 ivermectin patients and 30 control patients. The mean recovery time after enrolment in the intervention arm was 5.31 ± 2.48 days vs. 6.33 ± 4.23 days in the control arm, p > 0.05. Negative PCR results were not significan..
Aug 31
Late Kishoria et al., Paripex - Indian Journal of Research, doi:10.36106/paripex/4801859 (Peer Reviewed)
no disch., ↑7.5%, p=1.00
Ivermectin as adjuvant to hydroxychloroquine in patients resistant to standard treatment for SARS-CoV-2: results of an open-label randomized clinical study
Details   Small RCT of hospitalized patients in India with 19 ivermectin patients and 13 control patients, with all receiving SOC including HCQ, showing no significant differences. The patient population is biased because the study recruited patien..
Aug 28
PrEPPEP Shouman et al., Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, doi:10.7860/JCDR/2020/46795.0000 (Peer Reviewed)
symp. case, ↓91.3%, p<0.001
Use of Ivermectin as a Potential Chemoprophylaxis for COVID-19 in Egypt: A Randomised Clinical Trial
Details   PEP trial for asymptomatic close contacts of COVID-19 patients, 203 ivermectin patients and 101 control patients. 7.4% of contacts developed COVID-19 in the ivermectin group vs. 58.4% in the control group, adjusted odds ratio OR 0.087, p ..
Aug 15
Early Espitia-Hernandez et al., Biomedical Research, 31:5 (Peer Reviewed)
recov. time, ↓70.0%, p<0.0001
Effects of Ivermectin-azithromycin-cholecalciferol combined therapy on COVID-19 infected patients: A proof of concept study
Details   Small study with 28 patients treated with ivermectin + AZ + cholecalciferol and 7 control patients. All treated patients were PCR- at day 10 while all control patients remained PCR+. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days in the treatm..
Aug 14
Late Bhattacharya et al., Int. J. Scientific Research, doi:10.36106/ijsr/7232245 (Peer Reviewed) Observational Study on Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcome of COVID 19 in a tertiary care Centre in India- a retrospective case series
Details   Retrospective 148 hospitalized patients showing triple therapy with ivermectin + atorvastatin + N-acetylcysteine resulted in a 1.35% case fatality rate which was well below the national average.
Jul 31
Review Vora et al., Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, doi:10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.07.031 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
White paper on Ivermectin as a potential therapy for COVID-19
Details   Panel review of ivermectin reporting that "ivermectin in the dose of 12mg BD alone or in combination with other therapy for 5–7 days may be considered as safe therapeutic option for mild moderate or severe cases of Covid-19 infection..
Jul 31
Late Chang et al., ResearchGate (Preprint) Post-acute or prolonged COVID-19: ivermectin treatment for patients with persistent symptoms or post-acute symptoms
Details   Report on 33 patients with persistent or post-acute symptoms treated with ivermectin, showing a high rate of clinical improvement.
Jul 31
Theory Chang et al., ResearchGate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34561.48483/2 (Preprint) (Theory)
COVID-19: Post-exposure prophylaxis with ivermectin in contacts. At Homes, Places of Work, Nursing Homes, Prisons, and Others
Details   Proposed PEP protocol based on ivermectin.
Jul 31
Late Alam et al., Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons, doi:10.3329/jbcps.v38i0.47512 (Preprint) A Case Series of 100 COVID-19 Positive Patients Treated with Combination of Ivermectin and Doxycycline
Details   Case study of 100 patients treated with ivermectin and doxycycline, with no ICU admission, deaths, or serious side effects reported.
Jul 31
Late Rahman et al., J. Bangladesh Coll. Phys. Surg. 38, 5-9, doi:10.3329/jbcps.v38i0 (Peer Reviewed) Comparison of Viral Clearance between Ivermectin with Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine with Azithromycin in COVID-19 Patients
Details   Comparison of 200 patients treated with ivermectin + doxycycline and 200 treated with HCQ + AZ. The HCQ + AZ group had more severe cases at baseline. Viral clearance was faster with ivermectin + doxycycline, however ivermectin clearance r..
Jul 14
Early Chowdhury et al., Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology, doi:10.14744/ejmo.2021.16263 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓80.6%, p=0.23
A Comparative Study on Ivermectin-Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin Therapy on COVID-19 Patients
Details   Small 116 patient RCT with low-risk patients comparing ivermectin+doxycycline and HCQ+AZ, showing lower hospitalization, higher viral clearance, and faster symptom resolution and viral clearance with ivermectin+doxycycline. Mid-recovery r..
Jul 8
Late Gorial et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20145979 (Preprint)
death, ↓71.0%, p=1.00
Effectiveness of Ivermectin as add-on Therapy in COVID-19 Management (Pilot Trial)
Details   Small trial of hospitalized patients with 16 of 87 patients being treated with ivermectin, showing a significantly lower mean hospital stay with ivermectin: 7.62 vs. 13.22 days, p=0.00005. 0 of 16 ivermectin patients died vs. 2 of 71 cont..
Jun 19
In Silico Lehrer et al., In Vivo, 34:5, 3023-3026, doi:10.21873/invivo.12134
In Silico
Ivermectin Docks to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-binding Domain Attached to ACE2
Details   In silico analysis showing ivermectin docking which may interfere with the attachment of the spike to the human cell membrane.
Jun 16
Early Ramos et al., Preprint (Preprint) Intervención de la Ivermectina Pre-Hospitalaria para la Modificación de la Evolución del Covid19. Estudio realizado en Perú
Details   Prospective study of 63 outpatients in Peru treated with ivermectin, reporting significant improvement within 24 hours.
Jun 12
Review Heidary et al., The Journal of Antibiotics, 73, 593–602, doi:10.1038/s41429-020-0336-z (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen
Details   Review of the antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-cancer properties of ivermectin. Antiviral effects have been reported for Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Hendra, Newcastle, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, chikungunya, Semliki For..
May 20
Dosing Arshad et al., Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, doi:10.1002/cpt.1909 (Peer Reviewed) (Dosing)
dosing study
Prioritization of Anti-SARS-Cov-2 Drug Repurposing Opportunities Based on Plasma and Target Site Concentrations Derived from their Established Human Pharmacokinetics
Details   Pharmacokinetic analysis predicting that ivermectin will achieve lung concentration over 10 times higher than the reported EC50.
May 2
Early Chang, G., Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34689.48482/7 (Preprint) Inclusión de la ivermectina en la primera línea de acción terapéutica para COVID-19
Details   Peru observational case study of 7 patients treated with ivermectin, showing improvement and resolution of fever within 48 hours, and 100% recovery.
Apr 21
Review Bray et al., Antiviral Res., doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104805 (Review) (Preprint)
Ivermectin and COVID-19: A report in Antiviral Research, widespread interest, an FDA warning, two letters to the editor and the authors' responses
Details   Responses to Caly et al., and the author's reply. The original authors note that "ivermectin's key direct target in mammalian cells is a not a viral component, but a host protein important in intracellular transport; the fact that it..
Apr 3
In Vitro Caly et al., Antiviral Research, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
Details   In Vitro study showing that ivermectin is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2h post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ~5000-fold reduction in viral RNA at 48h. Some people claim this study show..
N/A Guzzo et al., J. Clinical Pharmacology, doi:10.1177/009127002237994 (Peer Reviewed)
safety analysis
Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Escalating High Doses of Ivermectin in Healthy Adult Subjects
Details   Safety study concluding that ivermectin was generally well tolerated, with no indication of associated CNS toxicity for doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose. Adverse effects were similar between ivermectin and placebo and di..
Animal Chiu et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., doi:10.1021/jf00101a015 (Peer Reviewed)
animal study
Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat
Details   Animal study showing that lung tissue concentration of ivermectin may be ~20 times higher than plasma concentration.
For search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), PRISMA answers, and statistical methods see ivmmeta.com. Meta, Theory, Safety, Review, and News items are not included in the study count. There is a total of 212 items. Studies with preprints and journal versions are listed under the earlier preprint date.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. WCH and FLCCC provide treatment protocols.