Carrageenan-containing over-the-counter nasal spray may double the rate of recovery from coronavirus and influenza virus infections, Re-analysis of randomized trial and oral sprays inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection of airway epithelial cultures

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Pharmaceutical interventions are urgently needed to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission. As SARS-CoV-2 infects and spreads via the nasopharyngeal airways, we analyzed the antiviral effect of selected nasal and oral sprays on virus infection in vitro. Two nose sprays showed virucidal activity but were cytotoxic precluding further analysis in cell culture. One nasal and one mouth spray suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection of TMPRSS2-expressing Vero E6 cells and primary differentiated human airway epithelial cultures. The antiviral activity in both sprays could be attributed to polyanionic i- and κ-carrageenans. Thus, application of carrageenan-containing nasal and mouth sprays may reduce the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and may limit viral spread, warranting further clinical evaluation. carrageenan; sulfated polysaccharides; virucidal; virus inhibition; virus transmission