Endectocides as a complementary intervention in the malaria control program: a systematic review

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. 2021 Jan 18;10(1):30.
 doi: 10.1186/s13643-021-01578-9.
Free PMC article


Background: Malaria is the most common vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes. Endectocides and especially ivermectin will be available as a vector control tool soon. The current review could be valuable for trial design and clinical studies to control malaria transmission.

Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched for original English published papers on ("Malaria chemical control" OR "Malaria elimination" OR "Anopheles vector control" OR "Malaria zooprophylaxis") AND ("Systemic insecticides" OR "Endectocides" OR "Ivermectin"). The last search was from 19 June 2019 to 31 December 2019. It was updated on 17 November 2020. Two reviewers (SG and FGK) independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles. Data were extracted by one person and checked by another. As meta-analyses were not possible, a qualitative summary of results was performed.

Results: Thirty-six published papers have used systemic insecticides/endectocides for mosquito control. Most of the studies (56.75%) were done on Anopheles gambiae complex species on doses from 150 μg/kg to 400 μg/kg in several studies. Target hosts for employing systemic insecticides/drugs were animals (44.2%, including rabbit, cattle, pig, and livestock) and humans (32.35%).

Conclusions: Laboratory and field studies have highlighted the potential of endectocides in malaria control. Ivermectin and other endectocides could soon serve as novel malaria transmission control tools by reducing the longevity of Anopheles mosquitoes that feed on treated hosts, potentially decreasing Plasmodium parasite transmission when used as mass drug administration (MDA).

Keywords: Endectocides; Ivermectin; Malaria elimination; Systemic insecticides.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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