Magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis approaches, physicochemical characteristics, and biomedical applications

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Yi He a, b , Chen Yi a, b , Xiliu Zhang a, b , Wei Zhao a, b, **, Dongsheng Yu a, b, * a Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Institute of Stomatological Research, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510055, China b Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China

Magnetic graphene oxide, a compound of magnetic nanoparticles and graphene oxide, possesses distinct physical and chemical characteristics, including nano size, a large specific surface area, paramagnetic and biocompatible properties, making it a promising biomaterial in the field of biomedicine. In particular, its excellent characteristics, including the integration of specific photothermal properties, magnetic thermal properties, paramagnetism, active chemical bonds, hydrophilicity, and low cytotoxicity, have been applied to remarkable bio-applications in bioimaging, biosensors, biochemical extraction and separation, stem cell regulation and the induction of differentiation, targeted drug delivery, and cancer therapy. In this review, we concentrate on the approaches of preparation, fundamental structures, biocompatibility, and the biomedical applications of magnetic graphene oxide composites. © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

5. Conclusions and future perspectives This review article presents a snapshot of the current state of research on MGO and the efforts that govern its development in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In general, the main synthesis methods were clarified. Fundamental physical and chemical characteristics like diameters in three dimensions, high surface-to-volume ratio, hydrophilia, and magnetic characteristic were described. In particular, the biocompatibility of MGO in vitro and in vivo was discussed. It is these basic physicochemical characteristics that rank MGO nanoparticles among the superior carriers for stem cell regulation and differentiation, MRI contrast agents, and biosensors. Because of a large specific surface area, active chemical functions, and magnetic properties, MGO nanoparticles are attractive alternatives in biochemical physical extraction and separation, drug loading, and targeted delivery. Attributed to their photothermal, magneto-thermal, and Fenton effects, MGO composites have been widely applied in research on cancer treatments, which could be promising as a novel and effective therapy in the treatment of malignant tumors. Even though various methods exist for the preparation of MGO nanoparticles, each has its own advantages and shortcomings. Better methods for the adjusted synthesis and functionalization of MGO should be the direction of future research efforts. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of MGO nanoparticles is not sufficiently clear, and the in vivo reaction mechanism or the metabolic pathway remains to be explored. In addition, functional MGO could be applied as one kind of biomedical scaffold and is worth developing in the field of biomedical engineering, especially in bone tissue engineering. However, the in vitro and in vivo osteogenic capacity and the specific mechanisms of the osteogenic effect and degradation of MGO nanoparticles need to be further explored. Moreover, a multimodal imaging, diagnostic, and cancer therapy platform based on MGO nanoparticles is also worth exploring, combined with bioimaging, biosensor, and thermal therapy

 

Comments

Mikael Nordfors's picture

I talked to the people who wanted to test for graphene (or graphene oxide).  They knew that there existed patents for using graphene as an excipient in shots and have suspected that graphene or graphene dioxide could be the reason why some people become magnetic.
They said they haven't been able to confirm the existence of graphene, contrary to what was presented in a video by a person called Ricardo, who was part of the group.  They would like to obtain more vials to test for it.
 
Whether or not there is graphene in the shots, graphene is just one exotic form of pure carbon (like a diamond is pure carbon).  It is a rather "biocompatible" material (meaning it is well tolerated by the body), making it useful for some applications. I  can't rule out the possibility of graphene being part of the nanotechnology in the shots.
 
 
Shimon
 
 
 
 

Shimon,
 
I share your suspicious and so waited to see whether there was any confirmation after he broke the first graphene story. But this seems more easy to investigate. Are you saying you don’t believe at all that this is evidence of graphene in the shots? 

Yours in education and choice,
 
Leslie Manookian
208-721-2135
President/Founder
Health Freedom Defense Fund
 



On Jul 31, 2021, at 11:14 PM, Shimon Yanowitz <shimon-y@013net.net> wrote:

I don't like the Stew Peters show because it is of a sensationalist nature with little scientific comprehension.
Numerous companies around the world supply the excipients for the "vaccines".  Many companies supply the toxic nanoparticles that were found by Dr. Gatti in her testing of the face masks and swabs (such as zirconium-silicate and titanium-dioxide nanoparticles).
I don't think we should get to much attached to China nor any other specific country in this regards.  This is a global business.
Basically, if one desires to construct some exotic nanorobots, nanoparticles or nanotechnology, there are numerous global suppliers from which to order the ingredients.
 
There could exist an intimate relationship between nanorobots and nanoparticles with intrinsic magnetic properties and external sources of electromagnetic fields such as the 5G network  (I have covered this in my presentation on nanotechnology).
 
Here is a sample list of USA companies who will happily supply custom made PEG:   https://www.thomasnet.com/products/polyethylene-glycol-62200605-1.html.
PEG with a lipid conjugate is just the outermost layer of the 4 lipids that are declared to construct the 4-layer liposomes used by Pfizer and Moderna.  So far we were unable to conduct testing to verify the exact and precise spectrum of contents in the vials.
Dr. Gatti told us that with the small amounts of samples that she had she could find "micro filaments" in some of the vials (which to me sound like micro-morgellons) and a "20 micron cell" in one of the vials (which to me sound like a parasite, since it is too big to be a bacterium).
Mattia Marchi of Corvelva has told me that all the labs that they have been working with previously have refused to do any testing of the vials for them.
 
We do have other pieces of evidence, though.  For example, that throughout this crisis there have emerged three medications that have gained reputation in successfully treating people.  Two are anti-parasitic (ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine) and one is antibiotic (azithromycin).
 
My inclination would be to describe the "vaccines" as containing several technologies for different aims, where not all the vials (of even the same manufacturer) necessarily contain the same ingredients, and where none of the technologies could be thought of as intended to benefit human health (to say it mildly).
 
 
Shimon
 
 
 
---- Original Message ----
From: Lyn Redwood

Subject: Re: "Bomb dropped" / Fauci's fears of immune enhancement occurring now

I was sent this video of a woman named Karen Kingston who recently appeared on the Stew Peters show.  She comes across as being very knowledgeable and is confirming the use of graphene oxide in the lipid nanoparticle construct. 

It is 18 minutes long, but worth the time. https://www.bitchute.com/video/6TIlAJQRxK7L/

She also exposes the company who is providing the PEG excipient for the mRNA vaccines as a company in China called Xiamen Sinopeg Biotech. How disturbing.

Here is info from linkedin site:

XIAMEN SINOPEG BIOTECH CO., LTD.

51-200 employees
6mo
We are Covid-19 Vaccine Excipient Supplier. Lots of the pharmaceutical companies keep developing the Covid-19 vaccine. Now there are two famous USA Vaccines in the market, we can produce and provide main vaccine excipients and have already been one of the main supplier for one of them. Here is our Covid-19 vaccine excipients list. #covid19 #vaccine excipient
 
She says she sent letters to many organizations, including Frontline Doctors, sharing her research and concerns. 
Has anyone heard of her or this Sinopeg? Looks like a relatively new company.  I wonder who is behind it?
 
Lyn

 

On 7/30/21 7:40 PM, Kim Mack Rosenberg wrote:

From: Meryl Nass
Sent: Friday, July 30, 2021 7:41:23 PM
To: Leslie Manookian
Cc: Eva Vanamee ; Rolf Hazlehurst ; Mary Holland ; Shimon Yanowitz ; Senta Depuydt ; Kim Mack Rosenberg ; Ulrike Kämmerer ; RAY L. FLORES II ESQ. ; Michael ; Reiner Fuellmich ; George R. Wentz, Wentz Esq. ; Sin Hang Lee ; Robert Kennedy Jr. ; mike yeadon ; Renate Holzeisen ; Greg Glaser ; Debora Blake ; Willem Engel ; Lyn Redwood wordsandmore@gmail.com ; Laura Bono ; Robert Kennedy Jr Assistant ; Antonietta ; Stella ; Brian Hooker ; podarcissicula ; VERACARE ; Liz Mumper dickrusl@aol.com ; Orsolya Gyorffy ; Catherine Austin Fitts ; Tina Choy ; Tina C ; Mikael Nordfors
Subject: Re: "Bomb dropped" / Fauci's fears of immune enhancement occurring now
 
I just listened to Wolensky get grilled by Bret Baier and heard nothing about pushing back licensure.
 

On Jul 30, 2021, at 6:39 PM, Leslie Manookian <leslie@greatergoodmovie.org> wrote:

Folks I just saw this on Dr. Peter McCullough’s list:

Full FDA approval of the Covid "Vaccines" pushed out to Jan 22 from Sept. per Wolensky's messaging on Fox Special Report 7/30.

 
 
No wonder DoJ wrote that sham opinion.

Yours in education and choice,
 
Leslie Manookian
208-721-2135
President/Founder
Health Freedom Defense Fund
 



On Jul 29, 2021, at 3:11 PM, Eva Vanamee <scheva66@gmail.com> wrote:

Thank you, Rolf. 
 
The unknown factor is how bad delta is.  It is clear the administration is doubling down and based on the UK data probably hoping for a soft landing. We are in uncharted territory. It is clear the unvaccinated have more to fear from the vaccinated than the other way around. 
 
Best,
 
Eva

On Jul 29, 2021, at 2:21 PM, Rolf Hazlehurst <rolf.hazlehurst@childrenshealthdefense.org> wrote:

Please watch yesterday's interview of Dr. Robert Malone, inventor of MRna vaccine technology. Then watch Dr. Fauci speak one year ago. Fast forward to 3 minute mark. See also report of first autopsy of covid vaccinated patient.
 
In a nutshell, Dr. Malone is saying that antibody dependent enhancement is occurring now, which is exactly what Fauci described last year as "the worst possible thing you can do."
 
 
 
 
 
Thanks for watching.
 
Rolf
 
 
--
Lyn Redwood, RN, MSN President Emeritis, Director Children's Health Defense Cell: 404-932-1786