PCR Test , the unknown!

English

The wide and frequent application of  PCR -tests, especially in asymptomatic patients , should be stopped and investigated for the potential to cause harm from the technique . In the wrong hands it could be misused as a possible delivery system .

 

A brief analysis of the PCR – test technique , trigeminal nerve proximity, studies on intranasal  drug administration ; and  the potential to cause harm .


PCR Test 

 

WHO lists two COVID-19 tests for emergency use- 7 April 2020 Departmental news

https://www.who.int/news/item/07-04-2020-who-lists-two-covid-19-tests-for-emergency-use

Nasopharyngeal  Swab 

 
”a swab used for nasopharyngeal collection constitutes a narrow stick made of a short plastic rod that is covered, at one tip, with adsorbing material such as cotton, polyester, or flocked nylon.
 

Nasopharyngeal Swab Procedure- approx.  2 min. video

 

 https://m.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=16&v=1H759HE7y50&feature=emb_title

Covid-19 Testing Self -Test Kit , Sterilising using Ethylene Oxide

https://www.medicdebate.org/en/node/1715

The acute (short-term) effects of ethylene oxide in humans consist mainly of central nervous system depression and irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes. Chronic (long-term) exposure to ethylene oxide in humans can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs, and damage to the brain and nervous system.’
‘Dermal or ocular contact with solutions of ethylene oxide has caused irritation of the skin and eyes in humans.'( See – Ethylene Oxide health hazard information ).

Covid-19 Testing  Self -Test  Kit  uses  Ethylene   Oxide to sterlise the swabs.

Considering the delicate nature of the oral and nasopharyngeal mucosa  and the proximity of important  anatomical structures there is an urgent need for health and  safety assessment of  the oral  medical tests and swabs  especially  their  use  in covid -19 testing as asymptomatic people are coerced into frequent , invasive , unnecessary  and unjustified diagnostic testing.

 

Trigeminal Nerve

 

Anatomy
https://kgmu.org/digital_lectures/dental/ent/trigeminal-neuralgia.pptx


-Trigeminal nerve is the largest and thick cranial nerve.
-It is a mixed nerve.
Composed of a small motor root and a considerably larger  sensory root.
The sensory root contains 170000 fibres and the motor root contains 7700 fibres.

Trigeminal Ganglion and its Connections with Human Brain and Neck!

https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/human-neck/trigeminal-ganglion-and-its-connections-with-human-brain-and-neck-human-anatomy/9565)

‘A few collaterals from the trigemino-thalamic tract make synapses with the reticular nuclei of the brain stem, and thence to the entire grey matter of cerebral cortex through the thalamus for arousal response’

Smell – ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0115/p427.html

The human sense of smell depends on the functioning of not only cranial nerve I (olfactory nerve) but also portions of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve). Qualitative odor sensations (e.g., the smell of a rose, lemon or grass) are mediated by cranial nerve I (Figures 2a and 2b), whereas somatosensory overtones of odorants (e.g., warmth, coolness, sharpness and irritation) are mediated by the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of cranial nerve V.’

 


Use of pharmacological or gene therapies via  Intranasal Route

 

2005 Study – Peripheral targeting of the trigeminal ganglion via the infraorbital foramen as a therapeutic strategy
Brain Research Protocols.  – Volume 15, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 119-126
 
A unique interventional approach for modulating sensory signaling involves targeting neurons in the sensory ganglia through use of pharmacological or gene therapies. This has previously been accomplished in the trigeminal system via stereotactic ganglionic microinjections.’
 

‘ Thus, we propose a novel and simple technique for studying mechanisms of peripheral sensory modulation of orofacial pain via direct application of drugs, tracers or viral vectors around trigeminal sensory neuronal cell bodies. This technique minimizes trauma to brain structures that may have an impact on pain perception.’

 

Injection of enkephalin-expressing vector into trigeminal ganglion gives widespread protection in mouse models of inflammatory pain

 
 
The researchers turned to gene-based therapy using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), a virus that readily infects sensory neurons. Similar vectors carrying the preproenkephalin gene showed early promise in Phase 1 trials for cancer pain, but the treatment reportedly did not produce statistically significant pain relief in a recent, small Phase 2 trial; additional studies are anticipated (see Fink et al., 2011, and PRF related conference story). In those trials, the vectors were delivered by intradermal injection, entered the nerve endings in the skin, and traveled to the cell bodies where they expressed the enkephalin protein.
 
The team engineered HSV1 vectors to encode human preproenkephalin or a control reporter gene. Then, rather than applying vectors to the facial skin of mice, Yeomans and colleagues chose to inject the engineered viruses directly into the trigeminal ganglion using a stereotactic surgical technique.
 
Yeomans believes techniques such as gene therapy are the future direction for treating pain syndromes. He likes to think of it as “molecular neurosurgery.”
 

Enhancement of nose-to-brain delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules with stearate- or polyethylene glycol-modified arginine-rich peptide

International Journal of PharmaceuticsVolume 530, Issues 1–2, 15 September 2017, Pages 195-200
 
“ Recently, nose-to-brain delivery is a highly versatile route, which, in combination with novel drugs being developed for treating intractable CNS diseases, is a promising approach for the treatment of disorders. Furthermore, nano-sized drug carriers may improve nose-to-brain drug delivery by their capability to increase the transmucosal penetration of the drugs across nasal mucosal tissue barrier. However, there is still not enough information regarding mechanism of absorption pathway from nasal cavity to brain using nanocarriers. ”
 
“  In conclusion, the results of this study support the possibility that drug delivery pathways can be controlled depending on the properties of different carrier complexes.”
 
Key words : Nose-to-brain:  Trigeminal nerve: Olfactory bulb: Brainstem
Peptide-based carrier: Brain delivery
 
 

Nose to Brain Drug Delivery: New Perspectives for Old Problems -An Enlightening Review

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2017, 9(7):111-122
 
 
ABSTRACT
Intranasal route of administration is one of the best routes for delivery of drug to brain. For the delivery of drugs from nose to brain, the low dose is required. This route of administration avoids first pass effect, onset of action is rapid, bioavailability is more and it has no degradation in GIT or toxicity in lungs and it does not cause pain. The capability of the drugs to target through the BBB and possibility of nasal delivery of drug is higher. In the recent years the intranasal route is considered as the superior delivery route for many drugs because of following factors like high permeability, high vascularity, low enzymatic activity, manageable surface area and it avoid first pass metabolism of lungs. Drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, microspheres, microemulsion, nanoemulsion and hydrogels have been shown that it has good bioadhesive to biological system and are briefly discussed in present review. An enormous range of neurotherapeutics, both macromolecules and low molecular weight drugs, can be delivered to the central nervous system (CNS) via this route.

In Summary

 
Considering the delicate nature of the oral and nasopharyngeal mucosa  and the proximity of important  anatomical structures there is an urgent need for health and  safety assessment of  the oral  medical tests and swabs  especially  their  use  in covid -19 testing as asymptomatic people are coerced into frequent , invasive , unnecessary  and unjustified diagnostic testing.
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UK- How ‘interesting’ Matt Hancock signs and announces scaling of testing on 4th April 2020 before WHO approves the test on 7th April 2020?

Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Scaling up our testing programmes
Department of Health and Social Care
Published 04 April 2020

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/878121/coronavirus-covid-19-testing-strategy.pdf

 

WHO lists two COVID-19 tests for emergency use
7 April 2020 Departmental news

https://www.who.int/news/item/07-04-2020-who-lists-two-covid-19-tests-for-emergency-use

 

MHRA issues exceptional use authorisation for NHS Test and Trace COVID-19 Self-Test device

Published
23 December 2020

https://www.gov.uk/government/news/mhra-issues-exceptional-use-authorisation-for-nhs-test-and-trace-covid-19-self-test-device

 

RT-PCR Kits and Vaccines Unlicensed by the MHRA- Posted on December 18, 2020 by Virutron Research

https://virutron.com/rt-pcr-kits-and-vaccines-unlicensed-by-the-mhra/

Diagnosis of COVID-19 is made on the basis of a test, the RT-PCR test, the results of which are frequently flawed. I questioned if the MHRA had approved the RT-PCR test and copied in a medical doctor friend of mine.

“Since the reliability of the RT-PCR test has been questioned . . . it is important to know that the MHRA has done its duty in protecting the public from potentially harmful health-care products. Please reassure me that procedures have been followed and that this product the (RT-PCR test) has been approved by the authority. Thank you.”

The response was mind-blowing.

“There are literally 100s of CE marked Covid RT-PCR tests available on the EU market.Such tests require a self-declaration process undertaken by the manufacturer with no review of performance data by any EU Government Body or Notified Body and that MHRA does not approve such products.

However, I can confirm that all PCR kits used by government laboratories or their subcontractors have been subject to rigorous validatio  by them before use.”

How can anyone possibly confirm that rigorous validation has taken place if these tests are not monitored? It raised an alarm to think results from all the “100s” of RT-PCR tests which the UK government, and other governments of the world, use in checking for COVID -19 are reached using kits that are self-regulated “by the manufacturer”. It is more than disturbing. There is no authority reviewing the tests and no authority reviewing results from the tests. It was necessary to delve further.

 

 

 

<p>CP</p>